Translational Research with HD EEG

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Because of its high temporal and spatial resolution, EGI’s High Density EEG is the technology of choice for researchers seeking ways to measure brain activity changes in complex neurological diseases, and develop biomarkers for diagnosis.

Here are some examples of ongoing research with the goal of developing clinically applicable methods.



IMPORTANT NOTICE: The applications referenced on this page are research or investigational only and are not intended to imply a specific indication for use of the EGI systems beyond their intended use statement on file with the FDA.

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Epilepsy Presurgical Planning

Brodbeck, V., Spinelli, L., Lascano, A.M., Wissmeier, M., Vargas, M., Vulliemoz, S., Pollo, C., Schaller, K., Michel, C.M., & Seeck, M. (2011). Electroencephalographic source imaging: a prospective study of 152 operated epileptic patients. Brain 134(10), 2887–2897. doi:10.1093/brain/awr243.

The first large-scale study (152 patients) of the relative contribution of 128- and 256-channel High Density EEG (HD EEG) to the presurgical planning process. Presurgical tests included MRI, PET, SPECT, and interictal electrical source imaging (ESI) with either conventional EEG (19-29 electrodes) or HD EEG (EGI's 128-or 256-electrode Geodesic EEG System). Electrical source imaging (ESI) using HD EEG recording of interictal epileptogenic discharges combined with individual MRI head models had the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying the correct part of the brain to remove during surgery.

Epilepsy Research

EEG has long been the most important technology for the study and diagnosis of epilepsy, since it is the only way to directly measure neuronal activity. Its high temporal resolution is critical for the detection of seizure activity. However, the tradeoff has been the low spatial resolution of conventional EEG, which traditionally has about 21 electrodes.

This, combined with the fact that the electrodes are only placed on the top of the head, means that clinically relevant brain activity can get missed. As more studies show the correlation of interictal spikes with the seizure onset zone, capturing as much information as possible at the scalp surface is important for thorough assessment.

High Density EEG has the potential to improve the understanding of epilepsy by increasing the spatial resolution, making it possible to follow the progression of seizures and interictal spikes, and to estimate their source.

See a list of publications on epilepsy research conducted using whole head High Density EEG.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Dawson, G., Jones, E. J., Merkle, K., Venema, K., Lowy, R., Faja, S., . . . Webb, S. J. (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 51(11), 1150-1159. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.018
Significant differences were seen in EEG measurements between two populations of infants - one with a high risk and one with a low risk of developing ASD.  The study illustrates the power of High Density EEG in identifying possible early biomarkers for ASD.

More publications studying ASD using EGI's Geodesic EEG System.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Hudac, C., Kota, S., Nedrow, J., & Molfese, D. (2012). Neural mechanisms underlying neurooptometric rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Eye and Brain, 4, 1-12. doi: 10.2147/EB.S27290

Event-related potentials (ERP) from EEG recordings can be used to assess rehabilitation progress in patients with traumatic brain injures. This paper presents EEG data that measures the impact of using early neurooptometric rehabilitation for posttrauma vision syndrome, visual midline shift syndrome, and other similar subtle vision disorders.

More publications studying TBI using EGI's Geodesic EEG System.


Lustenberger, C, & Huber, R. (2012). High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective. Frontiers in Neurology, 3(77), 1-11. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00077

A review of the use of High Density EEG in sleep studies shows the importance of combining the high temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution possible with High Density EEG.

More publications studying sleep using EGI's Geodesic EEG System.


Cruse, D., Chennu, S., Chatelle, C., Fernandez-Espejo, D., Bekinschtein, T. A., Pickard, J. D., . . . Owen, A. M. (2012). Relationship between etiology and covert cognition in the minimally conscious state. Neurology, 78(11), 816-822. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318249f764

This 2012 study in The Lancet uses High Density EEG to demonstrate that some patients, diagnosed as being in a vegetative state, understand what they hear and can follow instructions. Because EEG is portable and relatively inexpensive, this work shows promise that EEG could be used for bedside assessment of patients in a vegetative state.

More publications studying consciousness using EGI's Geodesic EEG System.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

Knyazeva, M. G., Carmeli, C., Khadivi, A., Ghika, J., Meuli, R., & Frackowiak, R. S. (2013). Evolution of source EEG synchronization in early Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging, 34(3), 694-705. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.07.012

Using High Density EEG and source estimation, this study showed that rapidly progressing AD patients showed a significant reduction in synchronization with time in left frontotemporal cortex. This correlation shows promise of EEG as a cost-effective AD biomarker.

More publications studying AD using EGI's Geodesic EEG System.

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 IMPORTANT NOTICE: The applications referenced on this page are research or investigational only and are not intended to imply a specific indication for use of the EGI systems beyond their intended use statement on file with the FDA.